Parts of speech

In English there are eight main parts of speech:

Noun: used to identify people, places, or things

e.g.: dog, cheese, people (common nouns); James, Sally, London (proper nouns)

Pronoun: used to replace nouns:

e.g.: I, you, he, she, it, we they (subject pronouns); me, you, him, her, it, us, them (object pronouns)…

Adjective: used to describe nouns e.g.: red, sweet, delicious, amazing…

Verb: used to describe actions or states e.g.: walk, feel, be, work, dance…

Adverb: used to modify verbs or adjectives: e.g.: very, always, quietly, noisily, happily…

Preposition:  used to describe the relationship between other words in a sentence, such as where or when something happened: e.g.: in, on, out, after, before…

Conjunction: used to connect clauses or sentences: e.g.: because, although, since, however…

Interjection: used to express a sudden thought or feeling, an exclamation:

e.g.: Ah! Dear me! Wow!…

Climate change or climate emergency?

Recently the British daily newspaper The Guardian decided to update its style guide with regard to the language it uses to refer to the environment. Instead of climate change, it recommends climate emergency, crisis or breakdown and instead of global warming, it prefers global heating. Read article

Here are some more words and phrases that are used to talk about environmental issues:

the Greenhouse Effect – efecto invernadero

greenhouse gases – gases de efecto invernadero

carbon dioxide emissions – emisiones de óxido de carbono

global footprint – huella ecológica

fossil fuel – combustible fósil

ecosystem – ecosistema

wildlife conservation – protección de la flora y fauna

to become extinct – extinguirse

Work vs. job

Work and job are easily confused, so here are some examples to show when each one is used:

Work = mental or physical activity (usually as a means to earn money)

Work is a verb:

I work from 9 am to 5 pm

She works for a multinational company.

And a noun (uncountable):

In the accounts department they always have a lot of work at end of the month.

As it is uncountable, it has no plural form. So:

“Esta semana tenemos que terminar dos trabajos” could translate as:

This week we have to finish two projects / assignments.

Work also refers to the place where a person is employed:

At the moment, she spends more time at work than at home.

Job (countable noun) = a paid position of employment = profession

The company is going to offer over 500 jobs.

What is your job? I am a doctor.

A job might be full-time (tiempo completo) or part-time (tiempo parcial)


Verbs that we use with job:

To look for a job – buscar trabajo

To apply for a job – solicitar un empleo

To get a job – conseguir un trabajo/empleo